Pledge of Allegiance, Part II

27 Dec

“I pledge allegiance to the Flag of the United States of America, and to the Republic for which it stands, one Nation under God, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all” (4 U.S.C. § 4, 2013).

Flag 2

That last clause – “with liberty and justice for all” — troubles me.  Is that really true?  It is especially troubling when obstacles have been placed between individuals and liberty and justice for all.  This litany is entirely too long:

  • 1662 – Hartford Witchcraft Trials (Wigington, 2016).
  • 1692 – Salem Witchcraft Trials (Wigington, 2016; History.com Staff, 2010).
  • 1830 – President Andrew Jackson signed the Indian Removal Act allowing the president to negotiate the removal of Indian tribes living east of the Mississippi (WGBH – PBS Online, n.d.).
  • 1838-1839 – Even though the Cherokee attempted “to assimilate [into] Anglo culture and practice while preserving some aspects of their traditional language and beliefs” they were evicted from their tribal lands in Georgia and marched to Oklahoma (History.com Staff, 2009).
  • 1841 – “The first three women – Mary Hosford (later Fisher), Elizabeth Smith Prall (later Russell), and Mary Caroline Rudd (later Allen – to earn and receive their bachelor’s degree in the United States got them from Oberlin College” (Oberlin Heritage Center, n.d.).
  • 1851 – “[T]he Cheyennes, Arapahos, Sioux, Crows, and other tribes met at Fort Laramie with representatives of the United States and agreed to permit the Americans to establish roads and military posts across their territory. *     *     *    [T]he plains Indians did not relinquish any rights or claims to their lands” (Brown, 1970, p. 68).    Yet, 10 years later the Territory of Colorado was created and efforts began to move the plains Indians toward reservations (Brown, 1970).
  • 1857 – The United States Supreme Court decides the Dred Scott case which “affirm[s] the right of slave owners to take their slaves into the Western territories, thereby negating the doctrine of popular sovereignty” which was one of the lynchpins of the Missouri Compromise of 1850 (History.com Staff, 2009).
  • 1865 – Congress creates the Freedman’s Bureau “to dispense relief to both white and black refugees in the South, provide medical care and education, and redistribute ‘abandoned’ lands to former slaves” (History.com Staff, 2009, para. 2).  Sadly, the Freedman’s Bureau’s efforts were frustrated through general hostility and terror organizations (History.com Staff, 2009).
  • 1840-1910 – “Rebecca A. Fried, a high-school student at Sidwell Friends school in Washington, D.C., has found overwhelming evidence that the [No Irish Need Apply] signs were very real and prevalent”  (Egan, 2015, para. 5).
  • 1887-1934 – Indian tribal land ownership “declined from 138 million to 47 million acres” in an attempt to integrate Indians into mainstream society with the passage of the Dawes Severalty Act which ended tribal government and communal ownership of land (History.com Staff, 2009, para. 5).
  • 1890 – The Ghost Dance, which had tenets that were similar to Christianity, “spread across the West on almost every Indian reservation … like a prairie fire under a high wind” was ordered stopped by the government (Brown, 1970, p. 436; Cozzens, 2016).
  • 1896 – Plessy v. Ferguson, 163 U.S. 537, determines that “separate but equal” public facilities are constitutional; this was later declared unconstitutional in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483 (1954), as it related to educational institutions.
  • 1913 – Leo Frank, the Jewish owner of a pencil factory where the body of thirteen-year-old Mary Phagan was found, was tried and convicted of the crime even though another man had confessed to the crime and there was no evidence to support the conviction.  A mob who broke into the prison farm where he was incarcerated, transported him to the hometown of Mary Phagan, and hanged him.  “Thousands of Jewish residents in Atlanta were forced to flee the city because the police refused to stop the lynch mob” (History.com Staff, 2009, para. 5).
  • 1917 – Women stage a silent protest in front of the White House seeking the right to vote (P. Harrington, personal communication, April 12, 2016).
  • 1920-1922 – Prior to 1920, sex could be a factor in determining whether a person could vote.  The 19th Amendment to the Constitution is adopted providing that “the rights of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any State on account of sex” and the constitutionality of the 19th Amendment was unanimously affirmed by the United States Supreme Court (History.com Staff, 2010).
  • 1942 – “President Franklin D. Roosevelt sign[ed] Executive Order 9066 … order[ing] the removal of resident enemy aliens from parts of the West vaguely identified as military areas” (History.com Staff, 2009).
  • 1965 – Voter protest marches such as the march to cross Edmund Pettus Bridge in Selma, Alabama, lead to the passage of the Voting Rights Act which “is considered one of the most important civil rights laws in U.S. history” (McCray, 2016, para. 2).  President Johnson said, “There is no issue of States rights or national rights.  There is only the struggle for human rights” (Keillor, 2016, para. 16). Yet, voting rights continue to be under attack (McCray, 2016).
  • 1969 – Police confront gay rights advocates outside the Stonewall Inn (The Editors of Encyclopedia Britannica, 2016).
  • 1970 – Four students are killed and eight wounded during an anti-war protest at Kent State University (Kifner, 1970).
  • 1990 – “[W]omen earn about 80 cents on the dollar compared to men … [and] after narrowing for decades, the gender pay gap has remained essentially stuck since the 1990s”  (Reeves & Joo, 2016).
  • 2004 – “First legal same-sex marriage performed in Massachusetts” (History.com Staff, 2004).
  • 2001-2014 – “[H]igher income [is] associated with greater longevity, and differences in life expectancy across income groups increased over time” (Chetty, et al., 2016, para. 86).
  • 2011-2012 – “In public schools in the United States, black children are twice as likely as white children to be subject to corporal punishment” (Startz, 2016, para. 1).

american-flag

  • 2016 – “American Muslims are far more integrated than Muslims in Europe.  According to a 2011 Pew Research Poll, only 20 percent of American Muslims surveyed would prefer to ‘be distinct’ than to ‘adopt American customs.’ Half say that many of their friends are non-Muslim.  Almost 80 percent rate their community an (sic) ‘excellent’ or ‘good’ place to live.  Banning Muslim immigration would almost certainly undermine this.  A 2014 study found that Muslim immigrants in states that experiences more anti-Muslim hate crimes were less likely to intermarry with non-Muslims and learn English.  Trump’s demonization of Muslims has already fostered more of these anti-Muslim attacks, and were he to try to implement his ban on Muslim immigration, Islamophobia would likely spike even higher, undermining the very integration of American Muslims that help keeps America safe” (Beinart, 2016, paras. 7-8).
  • 2016 – Sexism is alive and well in virtual reality (Harvey, 2016).
  • 2016 – A college professor “claim[s] … that ‘Israeli and Zionist Jews’ were behind the September 11 terrorist attacks, in 2001, and the Charlie Hedbo attacks, in Paris last year” (Fernandes, 2016).  Given the community’s civil rights history for “rais[ing] consciousness nationwide regarding the anti-slavery movement,” (GlobalMotion Media, Inc., 2013) this might well be considered sacrilegious.
  • 2016 – “[L]ow- income children who grow up in states with greater income inequality drop out of high school at higher rates than their peers living in states with less income inequality (that is, states with smaller gaps between the bottom of the income ladder and the rungs above) (Dews, 2016, para. 3).
  • 2016 – “Young black men playing basketball and football for the country’s top college teams are graduating at lower rates than black male students at the same schools – despite having financial and academic support that removes common hurdles preventing many undergraduates from earning a degree” (Whack, 2016, para. 1).
  • 2016 – “Working women pay a high price simply for being female.  Over the course of a 40-year career, a woman will earn upwards of $430,000 less than her male counterpart ….  And that’s if she happens to be white.  For African-American, Latina, and Native American women, the losses are even steeper”  (O’Connor, 2016, para. 1).
  • 2016 – “Poverty is typically defined in terms of a lack of adequate income, especially in U.S. policy debates.  But the experience of poverty goes well beyond household finances, and can include a lack of education, work, access to healthcare, or distressed neighborhood conditions.  These additional dimensions of poverty can be layered on top of income poverty; they can also put those who are not income-poor at a disadvantage” (Reeves, Rodrigue, & Kneebone, How 5 dimensions of poverty stack up, and who’s at the greatest risk, 2016, para. 1).

There are many more instances. Apparently, we have a long way to go before there truly is “liberty and justice for all.”

Just think about it!

References

4 U.S.C. § 4. (2013).

Beinart, P. (2016, March 23). What Trump Got Right About Brussels. Retrieved from The Atlantic: http://www.defenseone.com/threats/2016/03/what-trump-got-right-about-brussels/126904/?oref=defenseone_today_nl

Brown, D. (1970). Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee. New York: Picador.

Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483 (1954)

Chetty, R., Stepner, M., Abraham, S., Lin, S., Scuderi, B., Turner, N., . . . Cutler, D. (2016, April 10). The Association Between Income and Life Expectancy in the United States, 2001-2014. Retrieved from JAMA: http://jama.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=2513561

Cozzens, P. (2016). The Earth is Weeping. New York City: Penguin Random House.

Dews, F. (2016, March 10). How ‘economic dispair’ affects high school graduation rates for America’s poorest students. Retrieved from Brookings: http://www.brookings.edu/blogs/brookings-now/posts/2016/03/economic-despair-high-school-drop-out-rates?utm_campaign=Brookings+Brief&utm_source=hs_email&utm_medium=email&utm_content=27168714&_hsenc=p2ANqtz-8k8tNW-uox-L3K5UhsHvuIy9mi8jS9Ry9DG6_vL8X5bAiEBuk3

Egan, C. (2015, October 2). High schooler proves “No Irish Need Apply” signs existed despite denials. Retrieved from IrishCentral: http://www.irishcentral.com/roots/history/High-school-student-disproves-professors-theory-that-No-Irish-Need-Apply-signs-never-existed.html

Fernandes, R. (2016, March 7). Oberlin Board Condemns Professor’s ‘Abhorrent’ Social-Media Posts. Retrieved from The Chronicle of Higher Education: The Tickler: http://chronicle.com/blogs/ticker/oberlin-board-condemns-professors-abhorrent-social-media-posts/109233?cid=pm&utm_source=pm&utm_medium=en&elqTrackId=80960feb554a496eb2f4f7911749d174&elq=8a6d1447eea54fc3acd9280ece705645&elqaid=8163&elqat=1&elqCampaignId=2

GlobalMotion Media, Inc. (2013). On the Trial to Freedom: The Underground Railroad in Oberlin, OH. Retrieved from EveryTrail: http://www.everytrail.com/guide/on-the-trail-to-freedom-the-underground-railroad-in-oberlin-oh

Harvey, D. (2016, February 25). Is Virtual Realty Sexist? Retrieved from CO.Design: http://www.fastcodesign.com/3057012/is-virtual-reality-sexist?partner=rss

History.com Staff. (2004, May 17). May 17, 2004: First legal same-sex marriage performed in Massachusetts. Retrieved from History.com: http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/first-legal-same-sex-marriage-performed-in-massachusetts

History.com Staff. (2009, April 26). April 26, 1913: Girl murdered in pencil factory. Retrieved from History.com: http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/girl-murdered-in-pencil-factory

History.com Staff. (2009, April 28). April 28, 1897: Chickasaw and Choctaw abandon communal lands. Retrieved from History.com: http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/chickasaw-and-choctaw-abandon-communal-lands

History.com Staff. (2009, February 21). Cherokee receive their first printing press. Retrieved from History.com: http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/cherokee-receive-their-first-printing-press

History.com Staff. (2009, February 19). FDR signs Executive Order 9066. Retrieved from This Day in History: http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/fdr-signs-executive-order-9066

History.com Staff. (2009, March 3). Freedman’s Bureau created. Retrieved from Today in History: http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/freedmans-bureau-created

History.com Staff. (2009, March 6). March 6, 1857: Dred Scott decision. Retrieved from History.com: http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/dred-scott-decision

History.com Staff. (2010, February 27). February 27, 1922: Supreme Court Defends Women’s Voting Rights. Retrieved from History.com: http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/supreme-court-defends-womens-voting-rights/print

History.com Staff. (2010, March 1). March 1, 1692: Salem Witch Hunt Begins. Retrieved from History.com: http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/salem-witch-hunt-begins/print

Keillor, G. (2016, March 7). The Writer’s Almanac for Mar. 7, 2016. Retrieved from The Writer’s Almanac with Garrison Keillor: http://writersalmanac.org/episodes/20160307/

Kifner, J. (1970, May 4). 4 Kent State Students Killed by Troops. Retrieved from The New York Times: http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/big/0504.html#article

McCray, R. (2016, March 6). 51 Years After Bloody Sunday, Voting Rights Are Still Out of Reach. Retrieved from Takepart: http://chronicle.com/blogs/ticker/oberlin-board-condemns-professors-abhorrent-social-media-posts/109233?cid=pm&utm_source=pm&utm_medium=en&elqTrackId=80960feb554a496eb2f4f7911749d174&elq=8a6d1447eea54fc3acd9280ece705645&elqaid=8163&elqat=1&elqCampaignId=2

Oberlin Heritage Center. (n.d.). Oberlin History Timeline (1833-Present). Retrieved from Oberlin History Frequently Asked Questions aand Timeline: http://www.oberlinheritagecenter.org/researchlearn/historyfaqs

O’Connor, C. (2016, April 12). Men Offered Higher Pay Than Women for the Same Job 69% of Time, Study Shows. Retrieved from Forbes: http://www.forbes.com/sites/clareoconnor/2016/04/12/men-offered-higher-pay-than-women-for-same-job-69-of-time-study-shows/?utm_content=buffer476c4&utm_medium=social&utm_source=twitter.com&utm_campaign=buffer#4146056f6a04

Plessy v. Ferguson, 163 U.S. 537 (1896)

Reeves, R. V., & Joo, N. (2016, March 7). Occupational Hazard? The future of the gender pay gap. Retrieved from Brookings: Social Mobility Memos: http://www.brookings.edu/blogs/social-mobility-memos/posts/2016/03/07-occupational-gender-pay-gap-reeves?utm_campaign=Brookings+Brief&utm_source=hs_email&utm_medium=email&utm_content=27022867&_hsenc=p2ANqtz-8QUsmNON7IMK1DOpmGAWB-TlwjPmi42tp4nZzDmMULi2IWiR

Reeves, R. V., Rodrigue, E., & Kneebone, E. (2016, April 14). How 5 dimensions of poverty stack up, and who’s at the greatest risk. Retrieved from Brookings: http://www.brookings.edu/blogs/social-mobility-memos/posts/2016/04/14-multidimensional-poverty-race-america-reeves?utm_campaign=Brookings+Brief&utm_source=hs_email&utm_medium=email&utm_content=28480309&_hsenc=p2ANqtz-80hWOUWTeRfiB3Qr2HwOaLdBw0a8XcG5Iw6HYG

Startz, D. (2016, January 14). Schools, black children, and corporal punishment. Retrieved from The Brown Center Chalkboard — The Brookings Institute: http://www.brookings.edu/blogs/brown-center-chalkboard/posts/2016/01/14-schools-black-children-corporal-punishment-startz

The Editors of Encyclopedia Britannica. (2016, June 27). Stonewall riots. Retrieved from Encyclopedia Britannica: https://www.britannica.com/event/Stonewall-riots?utm_campaign=TWA%2520Newsletter%2520for%2520June%252028%252c%25202016&utm_medium=email&utm_source=Eloqua&utm_content=The%2520Writer%2527s%2520Almanac%2520for%2520June%252028%252c%25202016&elqTrackId=0fadbbb

WGBH – PBS Online. (n.d.). Indian Removal 1814-1858. Retrieved from Africans for America Judgment Day: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p2959.html?utm_campaign=TWA%20Newsletter%20for%20May%2028%2c%202016&utm_medium=email&utm_source=Eloqua&utm_content=The%20Writer%27s%20Almanac%20for%20May%2028%2c%202016&elqTrackId=e759380eab7b431b8082ef34eb683099&elq=860

Whack, E. H. (2016, March 15). Blacks playing men’s hoops, football lag behind in degrees. Retrieved from AP: The Big Story: http://bigstory.ap.org/article/dc445596c31e4f808a61ea71668bcdb8/blacks-playing-mens-hoops-football-lag-behind-degrees

Wigington, P. (2016, February 27). The 1662 Hartford Witch Trials. Retrieved from About Religion: http://paganwiccan.about.com/od/wiccanpaganhistory/fl/Hartford-Witch-Trials.htm

 

 

 

 

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